Canada, stretching from the U.S. in the south to the Arctic Circle in the north, is filled with vibrant cities including massive, multicultural Toronto; predominantly French-speaking Montréal and Québec City; Vancouver and Halifax on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, respectively; and Ottawa, the capital. It’s also crossed by the Rocky Mountains and home to vast swaths of protected wilderness.
Canadian citizens have joked that there are eight months of winter in Canada, followed by four months of road repairs. Well, for parts of the country, that statement is close to true.
Canada is the second largest country in the world (after Russia), and the largest on the North American continent, so saying that weather conditions vary widely in Canada would be a gross understatement.
Because of the warm ocean currents along the British Columbia coastline, spring begins there in February. Across the central and southern reaches of the country enjoyable spring weather usually arrives in May.
Generally, Canadians enjoy four very distinct seasons, particularly in the more populated regions along the US border. Daytime summer temperatures can rise to 35°C and higher, while lows of -25°C are not uncommon in winter. More moderate temperatures are the norm in spring and fall.
Summer begins in late May, and extends through September. The hottest months are July and August, and in the large cities of the south and across the central plains in summer, high temperatures are normally in the low 80’s, with highs in the 90’s somewhat common.
For many travelers, the months of September and October (Fall) are the best time to visit Canada, as most days are cool, crisp and pleasant.
The Canadian winters are cold and long, and in the northern reaches of the country they can be brutal. In the central interior and prairie provinces, the daily average temps (in winter) are near 5°F, with daily lows near -20°F; significantly lower on occasion.
In these regions, snow can cover the ground almost six months of the year, while in the far-north, nine months of snow cover (or more) is the norm.
Canada is the second largest country in the world after Russia, covering an area of 9,984,670 sq km (3,855,103 sq miles). It is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and Alaska, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the northeast by Greenland (across the Nares Strait), and to the south by the ‘Lower 48′ states of the USA. The polar ice cap lies to the north.
Canada stretches 4,634km (2,879 miles) from its northernmost point on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut to its southernmost point on Middle Island, Lake Erie, Ontario. The longest distance east to west is 5,514km (3,426 miles) from Cape Spear, Newfoundland and Labrador to the Yukon-Alaska border. Canada also has the world’s longest coastline at 202,080km (125,566 miles). The country’s highest mountain, with a peak at 5,959m (19,550ft), is Mt Logan in the Yukon Territory.
The landscape is diverse, ranging from the Arctic tundra of the north to the great prairies of the central area. Westward are the Rocky Mountains, and in the southeast are the Great Lakes, the St Lawrence River and Niagara Falls. The country is divided into 10 provinces and three territories.
Canada has only the fourth most arable land area behind Russia, China, and the U.S. The population density is 3.5 people per square kilometre, which is among the lowest in the world. While Canada covers a larger area than the U.S., it has only one-ninth its population.
The most densely-populated part of the country is the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence River Valley in the east. To the north of this region is the broad Canadian Shield, an area of rock scoured clean by the last ice age, thinly soiled, rich in minerals, and dotted with lakes and rivers – over 60% of the world’s lakes are in Canada. The Canadian Shield encircles the immense Hudson Bay.
The Canadian Shield extends to the Atlantic coast in Labrador. Newfoundland, North America’s easternmost island, is at the mouth of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world’s largest estuary. The Canadian Maritimes protrude eastward from the southern coasts of Quebec. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are divided by the Bay of Fundy, which experiences the world’s largest tidal variations. Prince Edward Island is Canada’s
The Canadian population is aging Changes reflect the aging that has taken place in Canada over the past fifty years. Between 1956 and 2006, the median age of the Canadian population went from 27.2 to 38.8 years, a gain of more than 10 years over a span of fifty years. By 2056, the median age is expected to reach 46.9 years, or 20 years more than it was in 1956.
A historic reversal: proportionally more seniors than children toward 2015
Canada is one of the youngest industrialized countries
In 2017, more than one Canadian in five might be foreign-born
In 2017, approximately 20% of the Canadian population might belong to a visible minority group
The largest visible minority groups are the Chinese and South Asians
Aboriginal population in Canada is close to 1.2 million
60% of Aboriginals living in Canada are North American Indians.
|opulation||34,834,841 (July 2014 est.)|
|Age structure||0-14 years: 15.5% (male 2,764,691/female 2,628,413)
15-24 years: 12.7% (male 2,267,210/female 2,142,085)
25-54 years: 41% (male 7,244,109/female 7,052,512)
55-64 years: 13.5% (male 2,336,202/female 2,380,703)
65 years and over: 17.3% (male 2,670,482/female 3,348,434) (2014 est.)
|Dependency ratios||total dependency ratio: 47.2 %
youth dependency ratio: 24.2 %
elderly dependency ratio: 22.9 %
potential support ratio: 4.4 (2014 est.)
|Median age||total: 41.7 years
male: 40.4 years
female: 42.9 years (2014 est.)
|Population growth rate||0.76% (2014 est.)|
|Birth rate||10.29 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)|
|Death rate||8.31 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)|
|Net migration rate||5.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)|
|Urbanization||urban population: 80.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.06% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
|Major cities – population||Toronto 5.573 million; Montreal 3.856 million; Vancouver 2.267 million; Calgary 1.216 million; OTTAWA (capital) 1.208 million; Edmonton 1.142 million (2011)|
|Sex ratio||at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
|Mother’s mean age at first birth||28.1 (2011 est.)|
|Infant mortality rate||total: 4.71 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.04 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
|Life expectancy at birth||total population: 81.67 years
male: 79.07 years
female: 84.42 years (2014 est.)
|Total fertility rate||1.59 children born/woman (2014 est.)|
|Contraceptive prevalence rate||74%
note: percent of women aged 18-44 (2002)
|HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate||0.3% (2009 est.)|
|HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS||68,000 (2009 est.)|
|HIV/AIDS – deaths||fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)|
|Drinking water source||improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.8% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2012 est.)
|Sanitation facility access||improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.8% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2012 est.)
|Ethnic groups||Canadian 32.2%, English 19.8%, French 15.5%, Scottish 14.4%, Irish 13.8%, German 9.8%, Italian 4.5%, Chinese 4.5%, North American Indian 4.2%, other 50.9%
note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin (2011 est.)
|Religions||Catholic 40.6% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, Orthodox 1.6%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)|
|Languages||English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)|
|Literacy||definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
|School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)||total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2000)
|Education expenditures||5.4% of GDP (2011)|
|Maternal mortality rate||12 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)|
|Health expenditures||11.2% of GDP (2011)|
|Physicians density||2.07 physicians/1,000 population (2010)|
|Hospital bed density||3.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)|
Education in Canada is under the complete jurisdiction of the provinces and territories (States) and as such, there is no Federal(Central) education system in Canada. In keeping with the national commitment to education, public education in Canada is free up to and including secondary school (12th Std), in all the provinces. At the post-secondary level, institutions are divided into community colleges and universities. A significant number of university graduates attend college upon completion of their degree in order to acquire vocational skills for employment
Canada makes a large investment in its education system. In fact, Canada is one of the world’s top education performers and among the top three countries in spending per capita on public post-secondary education, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
The tertiary education system in Canada is divided into:
• Certificate level, generally for a year
• Diploma level, for one or two years
• Advanced Diploma, generally two or three-year programs
• Bachelor degrees, awarded after four years of full-time study
• Post-graduate Diplomas/Certificates, for one or two years of study
• Master’s degrees, available after a bachelor degree to excel in a certain subject, for one to two years
• Doctorate or PhD, generally four to seven years
- More than 10,000undergraduate and graduate degree programs at 95 public and private not-for-profit universities and university-degree level colleges.
- Degrees follow the Bachelor/Master/Doctorate system and are equivalent to those in theUSA and Commonwealth countries.
- Vast choice of undergraduate and post-graduate programs, as well as professional designations, certificate and diploma courses, and short career-focused programs.
- Cutting edge technology and research labs.
- Opportunities for cooperative education and internships, and international students can often work while they study.
- Tuition fees range from CAD$8,000 to CAD$26,000 per year depending on the program.
The United Nations has ranked Canada as one of the best places in the world to live in. It has been considered as the ideal destination for quality studies. This assessment is based upon Canada’s achievements in terms of educational attainment, life expectancy, national income and general quality of life. It also included Canada’s abundance of fresh water, comfortable population density, low incidence of violent crime and a health care system that is a model for the world.
Canada’s education system is excellent and ranks among the best in the world. Moreover its tuition fees are among the lowest in English-speaking countries. Canada boasts a wide range of quality educational institutions for both degrees and diplomas in technical and professional disciplines. International students who have graduated from a Canadian university or college have the opportunity to work in Canada for up to one year after they receive their degree or diploma. International students can work on campus without a work permit. Plans are being made to allow international students to work off-campus, too.
For over a century, Canada’s two official languages (English and French) have been taught as second languages that is why we are world leaders in language training. International students often choose to take language courses before beginning a regular academic program.
As an international applicant you can benefit yourself if you are studying in any of the Canadian Institution. It is a multicultural country with a high standard of living. There simply is no better place for your professional and personal development!
#1. Canada’s commitment to education – Canada is among the top three Organisations for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in spending per capita on public postsecondary education. Collectively we place great value on education and fund and support it;
#2. Diverse culture – Canada is a cultural mosaic where diversity is celebrated, not simply tolerated. We are a multicultural society where almost all of the world’s ethnic groups are represented and live freely together;
#3. Safe and great place to live – Canada is a safe, welcoming and friendly environment that enjoys a high quality of life. The United Nations consistently ranks Canada as one of the best places in the world to live and as an international student you will enjoy these same opportunities with an opportunity to immigrate after your studies without having to leave the country;
#4. Depth and breadth of study – Canadian education system is a hybrid taking the best from the UK (depth of study) and American (breadth of study) systems and adding a Canadian twist (half of your program concentrates on depth while the other half offers breadth or the ability to combine two or more areas of passion). Couple this with the fact that you can obtain a quality education with tuition fees that are generally lower than other countries such as the United States or United Kingdom and you have a winning combination;
#5. Wide range of choices – As the second largest country in the world in area and more than 100 universities from coast to coast to coast, there are program and university choices as varied as the Canadian landscape itself, which means there is something for everyone. Canada truly is a land of possibilities!
STUDENT VISA FOR CANADA
You need the following documents to apply for a study permit:
In addition to these documents, you may have to provide other information when you apply for a study permit. Check the visa office instructions for your country or region for local requirements.
If you are not a citizen of the country where you submit your application, you may have to provide proof of your present immigration status in the country where you apply.
If the government that issued your passport or travel document requires a re-entry permit, you must get one before you apply for a Canadian visa. Other documents may also be required.
1. Proof of acceptance
If you plan to attend any school (primary or secondary), college, university or other educational institution in Canada, the school must complete and send you a letter of acceptance. You must include the original letter with your study permit application. See a sample standard letter of acceptance (PDF, 73.68 KB).
2. Proof of identity
You must provide:
- A valid passport or travel document for you and each accompanying family member. The passport or travel document must allow you to return to the country that issued it. Citizens of the United States do not need a passport. However, you must carry proper identification that proves your citizenship or permanent residence.
- Two recent passport-size photos of you and each accompanying family member. The name and date of birth of the person should be written on the back of each photo.
3. Proof of financial support
You must prove that you can support yourself and the family members who accompany you while you are in Canada. You can prove that you have sufficient funds to support yourself in Canada by showing some of the following:
- proof of a Canadian bank account in your name if money has been transferred to Canada;
- proof of a student/education loan from a financial institution;
- your bank statements for the past four months;
- a bank draft in convertible currency;
- proof of payment of tuition and accommodation fees;
- a letter from the person or institution providing you with money; and
- proof of funding paid from within Canada if you have a scholarship or are in a Canadian-funded educational program.
The following table shows the minimum amounts that you will need.
|Number of persons||All provinces except Quebec||Quebec|
|Single student||Tuition plus $10,000 for a 12-month period (or $833 per month)||Tuition plus $11,000 for a 12-month period (or $917 per month)|
|+ one family member||$4,000 for a 12-month period (or $333 per month)||$5,100 more for a person 18 years of age or older for a 12-month period (or $425 per month)$3,800 more for a person under 18 years of age for a 12-month period (or $317 per month)|
|+ each additional family member||$3,000 for a 12-month period per dependent child of any age (or $255 per month)||$5,125 more for a person 18 years of age or older for a 12-month period (or $427 per month)$1,903 more for a person under 18 years of age for a 12-month period (or $159 per month)|
If there are foreign-exchange control measures in your country, you must provide proof that the exchange control authorities will allow you to export funds for all of your expenses.
4. Letter of explanation
In some cases, you may wish to apply for a study permit even if you do not need one right away. There are benefits to having a study permit, even if you do not require one. If you have a valid study permit, you can:
- work part time on campus at the college or university at which you are registered as a full-time student; and
- apply to renew your study permit from within Canada, if you decide to continue studying in Canada.
- If you decide that you want to continue your studies in another program after you complete your short-term course or program, you must apply through a Canadian visa office outside Canada for a study permit if you do not already have one.
- If you are applying for a study permit even though you do not need one, you should include a letter that explains why you are applying. The letter will inform the visa officer that you understand your options.
How long will it take to get a student visa?
Student visas take 15 working days or three weeks to be processed.
How much does it cost?
A study permit costs INR 5,470, plus processing charges.
Can I work while I study?
International students are permitted to work in Canada while they study – both on and off-campus. Full-time students with a valid Study Permit can work on-campus without requiring a work permit.
This applies to all full-time students enrolled at a public university, community college, vocational college, a publicly funded trade or technical school, or a private institution.
To work off-campus, international students need to apply for a work permit, as part of the Off-Campus Work Permit Program. This permit allows students to work for 20 hours per week during term time and full-time during holidays and semester breaks.
International students who wish to work off-campus while studying as a full-time student in Canada should find out whether their university permits off-campus work for international students – some may not.
How do I gain some work experience?
Certain programs in Canada give students an opportunity to get some work experience. You might do an internship or a practicum (unpaid volunteer work), and Co-op placements offer work experience which is relevant to your subject of study. These require you to possess both a Study Permit and a Work Permit.
Can I work after graduation?
International students graduating from Canadian universities are actively encouraged to take up employment in the country. The Post-Graduation Work Permit Program offers you a work permit for a period of time equal to the duration of your course, for a maximum of three years.
For instance, if you complete a one year course in Canada, you will be granted a one year Post-Graduation Work Permit. With this type of work permit, you can work anywhere and switch jobs any time you like. You must apply within 90 days of graduating.
What about immigration opportunities?
The Canadian Experience Class immigration program encourages international students graduating from Canadian universities to take up temporary residence, or even become permanent residents of the country.
To become a permanent resident of Canada, you need to have worked at least for one year in Canada with a valid work permit. For this to be valid, your job must qualify as a Skill Type 0 or Skill Level A or B occupation under the National Occupational Classification (NOC) system.
Can I bring my family along?
Canada allows you to bring your spouse or partner with you. Your spouse/partner can also work while you are still a student.
Q: How to get admission in a Canadian University?
A: The Canadian admission season usually start in September. However, some programmes are also open for admission in July and May. For schools, which accept students in September, deadlines range from the fall to winter. Also, there are no entrance tests at the undergraduate level and a student’s admission is based on his/ her academic performance throughout school as well as in 11 and 12th standard.
Admissions to some Canadian universities are also accepted through OUAC i.e the Ontario Universities’ Application Centre. The OUAC is a common application platform for mainly undergraduate courses but it also accepts graduate and professional applications.
Q: What are the popular courses in Canada?
A: Among international students, Canada is most popular for its management and computer science courses. Even so, subjects like Life Sciences, Journalism, Hotel Management, Fashion Designing, Animation, environmental sciences are gaining popularity.
Q: What are the major scholarships for international students in Canada?
A:There are a few Canadian universities which provide scholarships specifically for international students. Some of the major scholarships are:
- Canadian Commonwealth Scholarship Programme:The Canadian Commonwealth Scholarship programme offers opportunities to students who want to explore study as well as research opportunities in Canada. The scholarship is funded by the Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT). Under this programme, Graduate Students Exchanges are hosted by Canadian institutions for a period of five or six months. The scholarship covers tuition fee, living expenses as well as sundry expenses of the students.
- Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarships:Funded by three major agencies- Canadian Institutes for Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarships is aimed at attracting high quality research personal to Canada. Up to 167 Vanier Canada Graduate scholarships are awarded annually. Under this scheme, the stipend is paid for 3 years and scholars are awarded $50,000 per year.
- Mitacs Elevate:The Mitacs Elevate is basically a training programme for postdoctoral studentsto undertake industry related research work. Fellows are paid $115,000 research award for over two years in the programme. Besides, the scheme also offers top-tier R&D management training worth $15,000 for the fellows. In addition to their research project, fellows spend from one to two days per month participating in training activities.
- CIFAR Global Scholars:This scholarship is meant for students who have completed their PhD and are looking to explore advanced research opportunities in their area of study. The scholars are given the opportunity to collaborate with researchers in across the world in Canada. The fellowship is offered for 2 years and scholars are paid $70,000 as annual stipend. Besides, scholars are also given health benefits as well as $5000 as additional research support.
Q: What is the cost of education in Canada?
A: While the cost of education depends on the institute you are applying to, the average tuition fee around $8000 to $25000 annually.
Q: How to get Canadian student visa?
A: In the last four years, Canada has witnessed a four-fold increase in the number of Indian students travelling to the country. You need a study permit to pursue your education Canada which gives you the right to remain in Canada for the duration of the permit i.e one to 4 years. It takes at least 2-3 months to process a study permit. Hence, it is advisable that you apply for it well in advance. The course duration should be more than 6 months. One of the basic requirements is that your course should be more than 6 months. You need not apply for a study permit if the duration of your course is less than 6 months. Also, your university should be a designated learning institution in Canada. The basic requirements for a study permit are the Letter of Acceptance and proof of funds.
Q: What are the work-after study opportunities in Canada?
A: International students are allowed to work upto to 20 hours during their study in Canada. Students are also allowed to work full-time during summer breaks. After graduation, students may become eligible to apply for permanent immigration under the Canada Experience Class (CEC) program.
Q: I have been accepted to study English as a Second Language (ESL)/French as a Second Language (FSL) at a private institution in Canada. How can I make sure that it is a good quality program?
A: Languages Canada provides a quality assessment of the language schools across Canada and offers lists of approved programs and members.
Q: I have completed all but one year of my program in my home country. I would like to finish the final year of my program in Canada. Will a Canadian institution accept the academic years that I completed in my home country and allow me to enter the final year in Canada?
A: Each university in Canada has its own policy regarding transfer credits from other institutions. Contact the university that you are interested in directly to find out which transfer credits, if any, can be applied towards your intended program of study.
You may also want to look into whether your current institution has any credit recognition agreements with institutions in Canada. The international relations office of your university may be able to help in that regard.
Q: I was accepted at a Canadian institution and sent in my application for a study permit a few weeks ago, but I have not heard back yet. Can you tell me when it will arrive? Can you do anything to speed up the process so I get my study permit right away?
A: Study permits (and temporary resident visas) are administered by Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Visit their Help Centre for answers to frequently asked questions about study permits. Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada has no involvement in regards to study permits or temporary resident visas.
Q: Can my spouse or common-law partner work in Canada while I study?
A: Citizenship and Immigration Canada’s website outlines the eligibility requirements foryour spouse or common-law partner to work in Canada.